Yield increase

Albit increases yield of wheat by 0,3-0,5 t/ha, sorgo 0,3 t/ha, rice by 0,7 t/ha, maize by 0,4 t/ha, potato by 3,4 t/ha, soybeans by 0,3 t/ha, sugar beet by 4,8 t/ha, kidney bean by 0,45 t/ha, vegetables by 1,9-11,9 t/ha, horticulture by 0,1-1,6 t/ha, vine by 1,93 t/ha on average

 

Materials of this chapter are published in article: Agricultural and economical effectiveness of Albit. Alehin V., Slobodjanyuk B., Zlotnikov A.K. Plant protection and quarantine Nr 9., page 26-27, (2005)

Рис. 1. Extra yield of different crops (centners/ha over control), obtained with Albit treatment. Average values of all 250 field trials (1997-2004) in 27 regions of Russia.

The main purpose of Albit is growth promotion and yield increase. Albit increase yield of cereals, sugar beet, sunflower, potato, flax, vegetables, legumes, horticultural crops, fodder grasses and other main agricultures stably by 12-23% (tested with 47 cultures).

Basing on data of field trials (1997-2004) average yield increase of different cultures under Albit influence was calculated (Table 3). It is necessary to note, that this summarizing table contains data taken from different regions of Russia in different years. In favorable conditions yield increase might be considerably greater. For example, yield increase of sugar beet obtained in Chapaev Pedigree cattle farm of Krasnodar region with double Albit foliar spray has reached in 1999 of 31,3 % (81 centners/hectare). With Albit assistance, yield increase of winter wheat, spring wheat, sunflower and flax straw might reach 12,5, 7,6,5,5 and 13 centners/hectare respectively.

Table 1. Influence of Albit on productivity of agricultures (the average data of all 250 field trials (1997-2004) in 27 regions of Russia). The most important parameter of given culture designated bold: for example, it is grain yield for wheat, yield of green mass for flax and fodder grasses. (-) - no data.

Crop Yield increase Yield increase of green biomass Source
(institutions conducted tests)
centners/hectare % centners/hectare %
Winter wheat 5 13.2 - - All-Russia Institute of Biological Plant Protection (2004); All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops (2001-2002); All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection (2002); Soil institute (2001-2002); All-Russia Institute of Agrochemistry (1998-1999); Kursk Scientific Research Institute of Agroindustrial Manufacture (2001-2003); Krasnodar (2004), Kursk (2001-2003), Lipetsk (2002-2003), Saratov (2000-2001), regional plant protection stations; Prikumsk agricultural experimental station (2001-2002); Closed agricultural corporation «Rus» (2001-2002), Collective farm «Rodina» (2003), individual farm «Bryzgalin and Uvarov» (2001-2003), agrofirma «Zolotaya Niva» (2003) Stavropol Territories; « Chapaev pedigree cattle farm» (2002-2003), agrofirma «Kubanagro-Fasta» (2001-2002), agrofirma «Yug Agrobusiness» (2004) of Krasnodar kraj; agricultural farm «Zaria» of Rostov region (1999-2002); Agricultural cooperative farm «Grachevskiy» of Lipetsk region (2004); Agricultural cooperative farm « Kushchevskoe» of Krasnodar kraj (2004); Agricultural cooperative farm «Praskoveya» of Stavropol Kraj (2004)
Spring wheat 2.9 16.4 - - Far East Institute of Plant Protection (2002); Kurgan Institute of Grain Growing (1997-1998); Agricultural Scientific Institute of South-East (2002); Soil Institute (2002); All-Russia Institute of Agrochemistry (1997-1998); Aleysk agrochemical service station (NAN) (2003); Ryazan Agricultural Academy (2001); Buryat (2003), Kemerovo (2004), Kurgan (2000-2001), Kursk (2002), Lipetsk (2002), Penza (1997-1998), Primorye (2002), Saratov (2000-2001), Tuva (2001) regional plant protection stations, Karachev plant protection station of Bryansk region (2004)
Spring barley 3.9 18.2 - - All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops (2002); All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection (2002, 2004); Far East Institute of Plant Protection (2002); Soil institute (2002); Kurgan Institute of Grain Growing (2001); All-Russia Institute Agrochemistry (1997-2001); Lipetsk State Sort Testing Station (2003); Ryazan Agricultural Academy (2001); Vladimir (2003, 2004), Voronezh (2002), Kirov (2004); Kurgan (2000), Kursk (2002), Lipetsk (2002-2003), Penza (1997-1998), Primorye (2002), Saratov (1999-2001), Tula (2003), Yaroslavl (2002) regional plant protection stations, Karachev Plant Protection Station of, Bryansk region (2004), Agricultural farm «Kushchevskoe» of Krasnodar Kraj (2004)
Winter barley 10.7 21.6 - - Chapaev pedigree cattle farm (2003), Pedigree cattle farm "Kuban" (2003-2004), agrofirma «Yug Agrobusiness» (2004) of Krasnodar kraj
Winter rye 3.2 22.3 - - Penza (1997-1998), Saratov (2000) regional plant protection stations
Sugar beet 64.9 22.9 - - All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection (2002-2004); All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001); Tula regional plant protection station (2003); Chapaev pedigree cattle farm (1999, 2003), Pedigree catle farm "Kuban" (2002-2003) of Krasnodar kraj
Sunflower 3.4 27.3 - - All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection (2002); Agricultural Scientific Institute of South-East (2003, 2004); Saratov regional plant protection station (2001); Closed agricultural corporation «Rus» of Stavropol Kraj (2002); Chapaev pedigree cattle farm (2003), Lenin closed corporation (1999) of Krasnodar kraj
Potato 34.3 20 - - All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection (2003, 2004); All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001); Bashkir State Agrarian University (2001, 2002); Cooperative farm « Odoevskye zori » of Tula region (2004), «Merisystemnye kultury» Stavropol Kraj (2003)
Maize 3.7 11.6 56.7 14.7 All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection (2002-2004)
Flax 0.9* 41.5 4.5** 20.5 All-Russia Flax Institute (2002-2004); Pskov regional plant protection station (2002)
Oats 6 22.2 - - Agricultural corporation « Krasnyi rog» of Bryansk region (2004)
Rice 7.3 19.3 - 22.5 All-Russia Institute of Biological Plant Protection (2004); All-Russia Institute of Rice (2004)
Spring vetch - - - 21.5 All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops (2001-2002)
Pea 2.5 14.4 - 18 All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops (2001-2003); All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001)
Buckwheat 3.4 44.9 - 18.9 All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops (2002-2003)
Galega 0.4 16.2 19.6 21.7 All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001, 2003), Vladimir regional plant protection stations (2004)
Lupine 1 14.3 - - All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001)
Alfalfa 0.7 17.3 53 19.7 All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001)
Millet 3.5 25.1 - - All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops (2002, 2003); Agricultural Scientific Institute of South-East (2004); Saratov Regional Plant Protection Stations (1999, 2001)
Soybean 3.2 19.6 - - All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001, 2003); All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection (2004); Chapaev pedigree cattle farm (2003), Pedigree cattle farm "Kuban" (2003) of Krasnodar kraj
Lentil 0.9 10 - - All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001)
Beetroot 24.3 14.7 - - All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001, 2003); Leningrad regional plant protection station (2001)
Tomatoes 46.7 23.4 - - All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001, 2003)
French beans 4.5 16.3 - - All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001, 2003)
Eggplants 18.5 23.2 - - All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001)
Fodder beans 1.9 15.7 - - All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001)
Vegetable marrows 70 17.4 - - All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001)
White cabbage - - 46 12 All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001, 2003); Vladimir regional plant protection station (2004)
Peking cabbage - - 62.4 12.5 All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001)
Carrots 37.5 10.9 - - All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001, 2003)
Cucumbers 116.6 24 - - All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001, 2003); Leningrad Regional Plant Protection Stations (2001, 2002)
Sweet pepper 36 16.3 - - All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001, 2003)
Lettuce - - 23.3 12.7 All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001, 2003, 2004)
Onions - - 33.6 17.6 All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2003, 2004)
Vine - 15.6 - 51.8 All-Russia Institute of Viticulture and Wine processing (2003); Nord-Caucasian Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture (2004)
Apple 14.3 8.5 - - All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection (2003); All-Russia Institute of Horticulture (2002)
Cherry 11 7 - - All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001)
Strawberry 15.7 38.9 - - All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001); All-Russia Institute of Horticulture (2002)
Gooseberry 5.3 28 - - All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001)
Black currant 10.8 34.6 - - All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection (2002, 2003); All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001)
Fodder and lawngrasses - - 3.3 15.8 All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2003, 2004)
Dogrose - 21.6 - 18.2 All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (2001, 2004, 2004)

* Yield of flax seed.
**Yield of flax straw.

As shown in table, different agricultures respond differently to Albit treatment. Regarding to average Albit-dependent yield increase, plants can be divided into 3 groups. The most responsive cultures (yield increase over 23%) are buckwheat, millet, sunflower, some berries (gooseberry, currant, and strawberry) and vegetables (cucumbers, eggplants). For example, Albit treatment of buckwheat allows realizing of high biological potential of this culture, which usually does not show its worth (see in details). As result, yield increase for buckwheat might reach 50% of productivity in control. Horticultures (apple and cherry), maize, lentil and carrot have relatively low responsiveness (yield increase below 12%).

One can note that cultures of listed groups (of maximal and minimal responsiveness) were tested in a few trials in 1-2 regions, often in extreme climatic conditions. Thus, information about these cultures needs additional more accurate definition and additional tests.

Majority of cultures have Albit-dependent yield increase within 12-23%. Influence of Albit on this ‘basic’ group is determined quite precisely. All cereals (eared and panicled), sugar beet, flax, soybean, pea, potato, vine, most of vegetables and fodder cultures belong to this group. Within this group, sugar beet demonstrate the highest responsiveness, cabbage (white and Peking) does the lowest one. Responsiveness of cereals growth in series:

Winter wheat>spring wheat>spring barley>rice>winter barley>oats>rye.

Yield increase can be measured in absolute values (centners/hectare, kg/m², tonne/hectare, etc.) and relatively, in percents. Relative yield increase is better for characterization of influence of Albit on plants, because it is independent on yield in control set. Cultures with similar relative yield increase might have very different absolute one. For example, average relative yield increases of spring and winter barley are quite similar (18,2 and 21,6% respectively), but absolute yield increase is 3,9 centners/hectare for spring barley and 10,7 centners/hectare for winter barley due to higher productivity of the last one (44-56 centners/hectare in control).

The productivity of agricultures is given in Table 3 in centners/hectare. For vegetables and some other cultures it is more convenient to present the yield in kg/m². For converting, 1centner/hectare = 0,01 kg/m².

Depending on conditions, yield increase might vary by 50% around the average value.